Ledipasvir (formerly known as GS-5885) is a NS5A inhibitor
Gilead Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir: Plans to initiate a third Phase 3 clinical trial with and without ribavirin
April 29 2013
EASL 2013: 'Quad' HCV Tx Works but No More Trials Planned
6-Week Treatment With Ledipasvir (NS5A Inhibitor) Plus GS-9451 (NS3 Inhibitor) With Peg-IFN/RBV in Naïve IL28B CC Subjects With Genotype 1 CHC: High Rates of Sustained Virological Response
CROI 2013: Sofosbuvir + Ledipasvir + Ribavirin Combo for HCV Produces 100% Sustained Response
Update on Phase 3 Study of Oral Fixed-Dose Combination of Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir for Genotype 1 Hepatitis C
Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: GILD) Mar 26 today provided an update on ION-1, a Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating a once-daily fixed-dose combination of the nucleotide sofosbuvir and the NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir with and without ribavirin (RBV) for 12 or 24 weeks among treatment-naïve genotype 1 patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection
Interferon-free regimen cures 100% of hard-to-treat hepatitis C
Ledipasvir (GS-5885), Extra Drug Hikes HCV Regimen's Efficacy
Jan 10 2013
Safety and Efficacy of Sofosbuvir/GS-5885 Fixed-Dose Combination ± Ribavirin for the Treatment of HCV
Thursday, January 10, 2013, 12:00:00 PM
Condition: Chronic Hepatitis C Virus
Interventions: Drug: Sofosbuvir/GS-5885 400/90 mg;Drug: Ribavirin
Sponsors:Gilead Sciences;Gilead Sciences
Recruiting - verified January 2013
Jan 7 2013
Gilead Update - 2nd Phase 3 Study of Sofosbuvir and GS-5885 to Begin Later this Month
-- Sustained Virologic Response Achieved with Oral Regimen of Sofosbuvir, GS-5885 and Ribavirin in 9/9
Null Responder Genotype 1 Hepatitis C Patients --
-- Second Phase 3 Study Evaluating Fixed-dose Combination of Sofosbuvir and GS-5885 to Begin Later this
Jan 4 2013
New GS7977+GS5885 Studies/Phase 3
AASLD-100 Percent Sustained Virologic Response Rate (SVR4) Interferon-Free Regimen of Sofosbuvir (GS-7977), GS-5885 and Ribavirin in Treatment-Na ïve Geno 1 Hepatitis C Infected Patients
Gilead posts positive results in mid-stage Hepatitis C study
6 New HCV Drugs in Phase 3 Now
FDA and 3 European regulatory agencies, and agreement has been achieved on a comprehensive Phase III development plan for GS-7977 and on a Phase III plan for GS-7977 in combination with the NS5A inhibitor, GS-5885.......we anticipate being able to file for regulatory approvals for GS-7977 by the middle of next year......
Gilead Begins Single Pill Hepatitis C Study For 2014 Approval
By Michelle Fay Cortez and Ryan Flinn on July 27, 2012
Gilead Sciences Inc. (GILD) said it plans to start a combination study of two drugs in a single pill to treat hepatitis C
by the end of the year, putting it on track to request U.S. regulatory approval for the medicine in 2014.
Gilead, which spent $10.8 billion to acquire one of the medicines, GS-7977, plans to combine it with another, GS-5855, in a trial of 800 patients starting in the fourth-quarter, said Norbert Bischofberger, chief medical officer of the Foster City, California-based company, in a conference call yesterday. If the combination is effective, the company could apply for regulatory approval in the middle of 2014, Bischofberger said.
Gilead is among several drugmakers racing to develop new hepatitis C treatments that act more quickly with fewer side effects than the current standard of care. The goal is to provide doctors and patients with simpler, more effective treatments, Bischofberger said.
The company aims for a therapy that “will clearly be a one pill, once daily, maybe a 12 week course,” for patients with all different types of hepatitis C, Bischofberger said. “That’s our goal. We are very close.”
Continue reading @ Bloomberg
April 2012- EASL
Persistence of NS5A Drug Resistance Mutations Following 3 Days of GS-5885 Monotherapy in Genotype-1
HCV Patients is Dependent on the HCV Subtype and Specific Mutation
Reported by Jules Levin
Slides Provided By NATAP
Coverage of the EASL @ NATAP
EASL 2012Apr 18-22 Barcelona Spain KA Wong1,
A Worth1, DM Brainard1, E Lawitz2, MD Miller1, H Mo1 1Gilead Sciences, Inc.,
Foster City, CA, USA, 2Alamo Medical Research, San Antonio, TX, USA
A Phase 1, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Three-Day, Dose-Ranging Study of GS-5885, an NS5A Inhibitor, in Patients with Genotype 1 Hepatitis C
Download the PDF @ NATAP
Journal of Hepatology July 12 2012
Eric J. Lawitz, Daniel Gruener, John M. Hill, Thomas Marbury, Lisa Moorehead, Anita Mathias, Guofeng Cheng, John O. Link, Kelly A. Wong, Hongmei Mo, John G. McHutchison, Diana M. Brainard
From 1Alamo Medical Research, San Antonio, Texas; 2CRI Worldwide, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 3Avail Clinical Research, DeLand, Florida; 4Orlando Clinical Research Center, Orlando, Florida; and 5Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California
"In conclusion, data from the current study demonstrate that GS-5885 is a potent, oncedaily inhibitor of HCV replication in vivo and is well tolerated in treatment-naïve genotype 1 HCV infected patients. These results confirm NS5A as an important target for direct acting anti-HCV agents and support further clinical development of GS-5885. GS-5885 is currently being evaluated in multiple combination therapies with and without PEG-IFN alfa-2a in Phase 2 studies in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced HCV-infected patients"......"Median (range) maximal HCV RNA reductions for the other groups were as follows: 3.1 (2.72, 3.66) for 3 mg, 3.2 (1.60, 3.67) for genotype 1a patients receiving 10 mg, 3.3 (2.28, 4.13) for genotype 1b patients receiving 10 mg, 3.3 (0.88, 4.17) for 30 mg, and 3.1 (1.48, 4.03) for 90 mg. For placebo, the median (range) maximal HCV RNA reduction was 0.3 (0.03, 0.66) log10 IU/mL. Median maximal HCV RNA reductions were similar for genotype 1a and 1b patients receiving 10 mg GS-5885; however, HCV RNA suppression was more sustained in genotype 1b patients (Figure 2). No patient in any cohort experienced viral rebound, defined as HCV RNA increase by >1 log10 from nadir during the dosing period. IL28B status (CC vs. non CC) did not appear to influence HCV RNA decline (data not shown)."
Background & Aims
GS-5885 is an inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A protein and exhibits potent suppression of genotype 1 HCV replicons. The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, antiviral activity, and resistance profile of once-daily GS-5885 doses of 1-90 mg were evaluated in patients with chronic genotype 1 HCV.
Genotype 1 HCV-infected patients were randomized to 3 days of once-daily (QD) dosing with placebo (n=12) or GS-5885 1 mg (n=10), 3 mg (n=10), 10 mg (n=20), 30 mg (n=10), or 90 mg (n=10). Plasma samples for pharmacokinetics, HCV RNA, and NS5A sequencing were collected through Day 14.
GS-5885 was well tolerated and resulted in median maximal reductions in HCV RNA ranging from 2.3 log10 IU/mL (1 mg QD) to 3.3 log10 IU/mL (10 mg QD in genotype 1b and 30 mg QD). Emax modeling indicated GS-5885 30 mg was associated with >95% of maximal antiviral response to HCV genotype 1a. HCV RNA reductions were generally more sustained among patients with genotype 1b versus 1a. Three of 60 patients had a reduced response and harbored NS5A-resistant virus at baseline. NS5A sequencing identified residues 30 and 31 in genotype 1a, and 93 in genotype 1b as the predominant sites of mutation following GS-5885 dosing. Plasma pharmacokinetics were consistent with QD dosing.
During 3 days of monotherapy, low doses of GS-5885 demonstrated significant antiviral activity in genotype 1a and 1b HCV-infected patients. GS-5885 is currently being evaluated in combination direct antiviral regimens with and without peginterferon.
Treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with 48 weeks of peginterferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) results in sustained virologic response (SVR) in 40%-52% of patients [1-4]. Addition of telaprevir or boceprevir, both HCV NS3 protease inhibitors, to the PEG-IFN and RBV regimen increases SVR rates to 67%-75% [5-10]. Therapy with PEG-IFN and RBV can cause side effects such as influenza-like fatigue, anemia, and depression, yet PEG-IFN and RBV remain the backbone of HCV therapy because monotherapy with telaprevir or boceprevir leads to the rapid emergence of viral resistance . Development of antiviral agents targeting other HCV proteins to be used in combination may reduce the emergence of resistance and potentially allow for a successful HCV treatment regimen without PEG-IFN.
The NS5A protein plays a role in both viral RNA replication  and the assembly of HCV virions . In HCV replicon cells, inhibition of NS5A results in the redistribution of NS5A from the endoplasmic reticulum to lipid droplets and appears to disrupt formation of new replication complexes . Clinically, inhibition of NS5A has been associated with significant reductions in HCV RNA and enhanced SVR rates when combined with PEG-IFN and RBV [15,16].
GS-5885 is a novel NS5A inhibitor with EC50 (50% effective inhibitory concentration) values of 34 pM against genotype 1a and 4 pM against genotype 1b replicons . GS-5885 is stable in human liver microsomes and hepatocytes and has no inhibitory effect on the activities of major human CYP enzymes and low liability for induction via activation of xenobiotic receptors such as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor or pregnane X receptor (Gilead Sciences, data on file).
We examined the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of once daily dosing of GS-5885 for 3 days in patients with chronic genotype 1 HCV. The GS-5885 doses evaluated ranged from 1 mg to 90 mg daily. Treatment-emergent changes in the NS5A genetic sequence were also assessed.
Between August 2010 and January 2011, a total of 72 patients were randomized at 9 study centers in the United States. All patients except for one, who was lost to follow-up after Day 8, completed the study through the Day 14 follow-up visit. Overall, 72 percent (52/72) of patients were male, and the mean (SD) age was 48 (8.3) years old (Table 1). Mean pre-treatment HCV RNA levels were similar between dosing groups, with a range of 6.3 (30 mg GS-5885) to 6.8 log10 IU/mL (90 mg GS-5885 and placebo). Two patients (1 assigned to 10 mg GS-5885 and 1 assigned to placebo) were excluded from analyses because of study drug administration error.
GS-5885 was well tolerated at all doses evaluated. No serious adverse events were reported, and no patients interrupted or discontinued dosing because of adverse events. From the 70 patients included in the safety analysis, 22 reported a total of 41 clinical adverse events (Table 2). Headache was the most common adverse event considered related to study drug (n=4/70, 6%). There was no dose-dependent trend apparent for any adverse events. All adverse events were mild or moderate in severity (2 moderate adverse events in the 1-mg and 30-mg groups and 4 moderate adverse events in the placebo group). In the 1-mg cohort, the 2 moderate adverse events were both rash; in the 30-mg cohort, the 2 moderate adverse events were headache and frequent urination. There were no clinically significant abnormalities as judged by physical examination, ECG, or clinical laboratory assessments.
GS-5885 exhibited time-independent, near-linear pharmacokinetics (Figure 1 and Table 3). Maximal concentrations were achieved 4 to 6 hours (median Tmax) after dosing across all dose groups. At the 1-mg dose, all patients had quantifiable concentrations for up to 24 hours after dosing on Day 3. The median apparent plasma half-life across cohorts from 3 mg to 90 mg ranged between 22 to 50 hours, supporting once-daily dosing. Pharmacokinetic parameters of 10 mg GS-5885 were similar between HCV genotype 1a or 1b infection. Except at the 1-mg dose, plasma concentrations 24 hours following dosing well exceeded the protein-adjusted mean EC90 for genotype 1 . Specifically, mean plasma GS-5885 Ctau on Day 3 for the 3-, 10-, 30-, and 90-mg doses were approximately 2.6-, 10.6-, 51.1- and 127.4-fold, respectively, higher than the protein-binding-adjusted mean EC90 value against HCV genotype 1a (0.91 ng/mL).
Antiviral response. Administration of GS-5885 resulted in rapid reductions in HCV RNA concentrations at all doses tested. By 8 hours post 1st dose, median reductions in HCV RNA were 2 log10 IU/mL in cohorts dosed at 3 mg and above. In all cohorts receiving 3 mg GS-5885 daily, median HCV RNA reductions were 2.5 log10 IU/mL at 12 hours and 3 log10 IU/mL by 36 hours. Overall, median maximal reductions from baseline were >3 log10 IU/mL for all dosing cohorts except the 1-mg group, which had a median (range) maximal reduction of 2.3 (0.95, 3.57) log10 IU/mL. Median (range) maximal HCV RNA reductions for the other groups were as follows: 3.1 (2.72, 3.66) for 3 mg, 3.2 (1.60, 3.67) for genotype 1a patients receiving 10 mg, 3.3 (2.28, 4.13) for genotype 1b patients receiving 10 mg, 3.3 (0.88, 4.17) for 30 mg, and 3.1 (1.48, 4.03) for 90 mg. For placebo, the median (range) maximal HCV RNA reduction was 0.3 (0.03, 0.66) log10 IU/mL. Median maximal HCV RNA reductions were similar for genotype 1a and 1b patients receiving 10 mg GS-5885; however, HCV RNA suppression was more sustained in genotype 1b patients (Figure 2). No patient in any cohort experienced viral rebound, defined as HCV RNA increase by >1 log10 from nadir during the dosing period. IL28B status (CC vs. non CC) did not appear to influence HCV RNA decline (data not shown).
Exposure-response modeling. The simple Emax model adequately described the relationship between GS-5885 exposure (assessed as AUC over the dosing interval) and maximum reductions in HCV RNA concentrations. Emax values predicted by the model were close to the observed values. As seen in Figure 3, Emax modeling indicated that exposures achieved following administration of 30 mg GS-5885 provide >95% of maximal antiviral response in genotype 1a infected subjects. Inter-subject variability in exposure/response varied across cohorts, with the highest variability observed at the 90-mg dose. However, fairly robust responses were observed through the range of exposures achieved.
NS5A sequence analysis. Population sequencing performed for all patients at baseline revealed 5 patients with detectable pre-existing resistance-associated NS5A mutations. Four of these 5 were identified in GT1a patients, and 2 of the 4 had maximal HCV RNA reductions 1.6 log10 IU/mL (Figure 4). NS5A mutation Q30E/Q was identified in one of these patients (Figure 4A) and L31M in the other (Figure 4B). A third patient, dosed at 10 mg GS-5885, had a maximal HCV RNA reduction of -1.6 log10 IU/mL with no detectable resistance mutations by population sequencing, which has a limit of detection of ~25%. In this third patient (Figure 4C), 454 pyrosequencing of the baseline sample revealed that 12% of the viral species harbored an NS5A Y93C mutation. For all 3 of these patients, the mutations observed at baseline were predominant at Days 4 and 14. Plasma exposures of GS-5885 in these 3 patients were similar to others within their groups.
Treatment-emergent mutations in NS5A were assessed by population sequencing at Day 4 (approximately 24 hours after the last dose of GS-5885) and Day 14. In the patients with genotype 1a HCV, the spectrum of detected resistance mutations was complex (Table 4). Of the 10 HCV genotype 1a patients dosed with 1 mg GS-5885, 3 had resistance mutations detected at NS5A positions 30 or 31 by population sequencing at either Day 4 or Day 14. No change from baseline at known resistance amino acid positions (NS5A amino acids 28, 30, 31, 93) were detected for the remaining 7 patients at Day 4 and Day 14. Irrespective of racial background or ethnicity, all patients dosed at 3 mg GS-5885 had resistance mutations detected by population sequencing. The fold shift in EC50 of GS-5885 versus these mutants suggests M28T had the lowest resistance and Y93H had the highest (Table 4). M28T and Q30H were only detected in the 1-, 3-, and 10-mg cohorts with HCV genotype 1a. At the 30- and 90-mg doses, these two mutations were not detected, which is consistent with suppression of lower-level resistant variants at higher doses. Conversely, the highest-level resistant variants among patients with genotype 1a virus, Y93C and Y93H, were selected more frequently in patients who received 90 mg GS-5885. The 2 resistance mutations with the broadest representation across dosing cohorts with genotype 1a HCV were Q30R and L31M, with Q30R having the highest frequency. All 10 patients with genotype 1b HCV, who received 10 mg GS-5885, harbored Y93H following treatment, consistent with Y93H being the primary GS-5885 resistance mutation selected in the genotype 1b replicon (data not shown).
This is the first report of the safety and antiviral activity of GS-5885 in HCV-infected patients. In this study of patients with genotype 1 HCV, 3 days of once-daily dosing with GS- 5885 were well tolerated and led to substantial declines in HCV RNA during the dosing interval. The median maximal reduction in HCV RNA ranged from 2.3 log10 IU/mL (1 mg QD) to 3.3 log10 IU/mL (10 mg QD in genotype 1b and 30 mg QD). Median maximal reductions were >3 log10 IU/mL for all groups receiving 3 mg or higher GS-5885 daily, and the magnitude of viral suppression was similar between them. GS-5885 produced a rapid reduction in HCV RNA over the initial 12 hours of therapy, and the response was greater than has been reported for telaprevir or boceprevir monotherapies [19,20]. The kinetics of HCV RNA reductions over the first 24 hours after initiating GS-5885 were similar to those seen with a single dose of the NS5A inhibitor BMS-790052 . Theoretically, a more rapid and profound reduction of HCV RNA may result in better suppression of wild type virus and reduce the likelihood of de novo resistant mutants during treatment. Whether GS-5885 provides an advantage in clinical response over other classes of HCV inhibitors warrants further study.
In vitro replicon data demonstrate that the antiviral activity of GS-5885 is less against genotype 1a than 1b (mean EC50 versus 1a = 34 pM; mean EC50 versus 1b = 4 pM). Although the mean maximal HCV RNA reductions with 10 mg GS-5885 in genotype 1a and 1b patients were not vastly different (3.2 vs. 3.3 log10 IU/mL), viral suppression lasted longer after treatment cessation in the 1b patients. Furthermore, the pattern of resistance mutations was significantly different between 1a and 1b patients, suggesting that antiviral activity differs in these two patient populations .
Exposure-response analyses indicate that GS-5885 doses 30 mg provide >95% of maximal antiviral responses in patients with genotype 1a HCV. The plasma Ctrough concentrations of GS-5885 at 30 mg and 90 mg were 230-fold and 572-fold higher than the protein-adjusted genotype 1a EC50, respectively. The results suggest that GS-5885 dosing beyond 90 mg is unlikely to cause further meaningful reductions in HCV RNA.
Three patients in the current study had substantially reduced HCV RNA reductions as compared with median values in their respective cohorts. These patients were subsequently found to have variants in their baseline NS5A sequence that are known to confer resistance to GS-5885. Whether these findings are clinically relevant depends in part on the frequency of these mutations in HCV-infected patients. Studies assessing the prevalence of known HCV drug-resistance mutations in untreated HCV-infected patients have focused on NS3 protease inhibitors or NS5B non-nucleoside inhibitors, and their results indicate dominant resistant mutations are common [22,23]. Few data are available regarding the prevalence of NS5A resistance mutations in genotype 1a and 1b infected patients. In the European HCV database of over 500 genotype 1a sequences, the reported prevalence of mutations Y93C and L31M is 0.2% and Q30E is 0.0% [24,25]. Mutants observed in this study retained full susceptibility to other classes of antivirals, including direct acting anti-HCV agents and interferon (data not shown).
The resistance profile for GS-5885 mapped primarily to residues 28, 30, 31, and 93 of HCV NS5A. In genotype 1a patients, resistance mutations were spread across these residues, whereas in genotype 1b patients, Y93H was the sole resistance variant noted by population sequencing. For genotype 1a patients, NS5A, M28T, and Q30H resistance mutations were not detected in patients receiving GS-5885 30 mg. This is consistent with a lower-fold resistance observed with these 2 mutations against the genotype 1a replicon when compared with other variants (Table 4). Plasma Ctrough concentrations of GS-5885 at 30 mg or 90 mg were higher than protein-adjusted EC50 values for these 2 mutants (Tables 3 and 4). While the replication capacity of the genotype 1a M28T mutant is 31%, the replication level of the Q30H mutant is substantially higher at 75% of the wild-type 1a replicon . Suppression of these two mutants with GS-5885 at 30 mg or higher potentially increases the resistance barrier of GS-5885-containing combination regimens.
The picomolar potency, pharmacokinetic properties supporting once daily dosing, and current safety profile of NS5A inhibitors make them an attractive target for drug development . In addition, GS-5885 demonstrated additive to synergistic antiviral activity in vitro when combined with IFN, RBV, and multiple other classes of direct-acting antivirals including GS-9451 (protease inhibitor), GS-9669 (non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor), GS-9190 (nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitor), and GS-6620 (nucleoside analog) (Gilead Sciences, data on file). Therefore, GS-5885 in combination with PEG/RBV or direct-acting antivirals is currently being evaluated in Phase 2 studies. The antiviral activity, including subtype differences, observed with GS-5885 is similar to BMS-790052, the only other NS5A inhibitor also in Phase 2 development . The pattern of resistance mutations selected by GS-5885 is also similar to that of BMS-790052 , where the Y93H mutation dominated with genotype 1b virus, and mutations at residues 28, 30, 31, and 93 were predominant with genotype 1a virus. Furthermore, the levels of resistance against the Q30R, Y93C, and Y93H single mutations in genotype 1a were similar between GS-5885 and BMS-790052. However, the in vitro activity as measured by EC50 against other resistant mutations varies for the two compounds. In genotype 1b virus, BMS-790052 is significantly more active against the Y93H mutation (0.05 nM for BMS-790052 vs. 5 nM for GS-5885) . In contrast, in genotype 1a, GS-5885 is 4-5 times more active against theM28T and Q30H mutations than BMS-790052, while the latter is approximately 2 times more potent against the L31M mutation.
In conclusion, data from the current study demonstrate that GS-5885 is a potent, oncedaily inhibitor of HCV replication in vivo and is well tolerated in treatment-naïve genotype 1 HCV infected patients. These results confirm NS5A as an important target for direct acting anti-HCV agents and support further clinical development of GS-5885. GS-5885 is currently being evaluated in multiple combination therapies with and without PEG-IFN alfa-2a in Phase 2 studies in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced HCV-infected patients.